1. Censors became very powerful magistrates in the Roman Republic.
2. Praetors were elected to help the consuls and formed much of the civil law in Rome.
3. The Forum's ruins stand as monuments to the grand style of Roman architecture.
4. In 509 B.C. the Romans vowed never again to be ruled by a monarch and established a democracy.
5. A dictator could be appointed by the Senate and could rule for up to six months.
1. Rome feared that if Carthage controlled the Mediterranean, Rome would not be able to expand overseas.
2. The name of these wars comes from the Latin adjective for Phoenician, which is punicus.
3. Macedonia came under Roman "protection" in 197 B.C.
4. The gap between rich and poor continued to grow as the Roman empire expanded.
5. After losing the First Punic War, Carthage was forced to give up Sicily and pay large sums of money to Rome.
1. Marc Antony helped Caesar's grandnephew, Octavian, inherit Rome and ruled with him in the Second Triumvirate.
2. Some senators, including two of Caesar's friends, formed a conspiracy and killed Caesar in the Senate on the Ides of March.
3. Sulla tried to restore power to the Senate; however, more and more often an army commander with loyal troops could force the Senate to do his bidding.
4. The Senate gave Octavian the title Augustus, or "the revered one," and he has been known as Caesar Augustus ever since.
5. Caesar, Licinius Crassus, and Gnaeus Pompey formed a political alliance called the First Triumvirate in 60 B.C.
1. As a result of Pax Romana of this extended peace, the Romans made great cultural advances.
2. The government passed new laws as needed and judges reinterpreted old laws to fit new circumstances.
3. Over time, Roman religious beliefs were increasingly influenced by Greek thought.
4. Gladiators were trained fighters and their fights most often ended in death.
5. The Ptolemaic system(astronomy and geography) was accepted for almost 1,500 years.
1. Rabbis were Jewish scholars who interpreted scriptures and were learned in Jewish laws, and became the leaders of Jewish congregations.
2. The emperor Hadrian banned all Jews from Jerusalem, which resulted in Jewish communities outside of Jerusalem.
3. Many Christians became martyrs - people put to death for their beliefs.
4. Constantine promoted Christianity throughout the empire and was baptized on his deathbed.
5. Better church organization and the Declaration of Constantine also helped establish Christianity and stabilize the church.
1. Inflation rose when the emperors responded to the shortage of silver by decreasing the amount of silver in each coin in order to mint more coins.
2. The Goths, Vandals, and Franks lived north of the Rhine and Danube Rivers.
3. Attila the Hun was a fierce leader who attacked Gaul in A.D 451.
4. The decline of manufacturing and loss of war loot in the late Empire contributed to the fall of the empire.
5. Romans of the later empire lost their patriotism and took little interest in the government.